Jugoslavija

Jugoslavija "Jugoslavija" Deutsch Übersetzung

Jugoslawien war ein von 19bestehender Staat in Mittel- und Südosteuropa, dessen Staatsform und Territorium sich im Laufe seiner Geschichte mehrfach änderten. Jugoslawien (serbokroatisch Југославија/Jugoslavija, slowenisch Jugoslavija, mazedonisch Југославија; zu deutsch: Südslawien) war ein von bis November wurde die Föderative Volksrepublik Jugoslawien (Federativna Narodna Republika Jugoslavija) proklamiert, nachdem Titos kommunistische. Monarhijska Jugoslavija. Kraljevstvo Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca (Kraljevstvo SHS) nastalo je 1. XII. ujedinjenjem kraljevina Srbije i Crne Gore s Državom. Übersetzung Slowenisch-Deutsch für Jugoslavija im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion.

jugoslavija

Übersetzung Slowenisch-Deutsch für Jugoslavija im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Monarhijska Jugoslavija. Kraljevstvo Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca (Kraljevstvo SHS) nastalo je 1. XII. ujedinjenjem kraljevina Srbije i Crne Gore s Državom. 15 Jovic, Jugoslavija, S. 1 6 Vacic, Jugoslavija i Evropa, S. 17 Radelic, Hrvatska u Jugoslaviji, S. f. 18 Zit. n. Ramet, Yugoslavia in the s, S. 9.

Because its two autonomous provinces had de facto prerogatives of full-fledged republics, Serbia found that its hands were tied, for the republican government was restricted in making and carrying out decisions that would apply to the provinces.

Since the provinces had a vote in the Federal Presidency Council an eight-member council composed of representatives from the six republics and the two autonomous provinces , they sometimes even entered into coalition with other republics, thus outvoting Serbia.

After Tito's death, Milosevic made his way to becoming the next superior figure and political official for Serbia.

The very instrument that reduced Serbian influence before was now used to increase it: in the eight-member Council, Serbia could now count on four votes at a minimum: Serbia proper, then-loyal Montenegro, Vojvodina, and Kosovo.

As a result of these events, ethnic Albanian miners in Kosovo organised the Kosovo miners' strike , which dovetailed into ethnic conflict between the Albanians and the non-Albanians in the province.

With Milosevic gaining control over Kosovo in , the original residency changed drastically leaving only a minimum amount of Serbians left in the region.

Initial strikes turned into widespread demonstrations demanding a Kosovan republic. This angered Serbia's leadership which proceeded to use police force, and later even the Federal Army was sent to the province by the order of the Serbia-held majority in the Yugoslav Presidency Council.

In January , the extraordinary 14th Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia was convened. For most of the time, the Slovene and Serbian delegations were arguing over the future of the League of Communists and Yugoslavia.

In turn, the Slovenes, supported by Croats, sought to reform Yugoslavia by devolving even more power to republics, but were voted down.

As a result, the Slovene and Croatian delegations left the Congress and the all-Yugoslav Communist party was dissolved. The constitutional crisis that inevitably followed resulted in a rise of nationalism in all republics: Slovenia and Croatia voiced demands for looser ties within the Federation.

Following the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, each of the republics held multi-party elections in Slovenia and Croatia held the elections in April since their communist parties chose to cede power peacefully.

Other Yugoslav republics—especially Serbia—were more or less dissatisfied with the democratisation in two of the republics and proposed different sanctions e.

Serbian "customs tax" for Slovene products against the two, but as the year progressed, other republics' communist parties saw the inevitability of the democratisation process; in December, as the last member of the federation, Serbia held parliamentary elections which confirmed former communists' rule in this republic.

The unresolved issues however remained. Serbia and Montenegro elected candidates who favoured Yugoslav unity. The Croat quest for independence led to large Serb communities within Croatia rebelling and trying to secede from the Croat republic.

Serbs in Croatia would not accept a status of a national minority in a sovereign Croatia, since they would be demoted from the status of a constituent nation of the entirety of Yugoslavia.

The war broke out when the new regimes tried to replace Yugoslav civilian and military forces with secessionist forces.

When, in August , Croatia attempted to replace police in the Serb populated Croat Krajina by force, the population first looked for refuge in the Yugoslavian Army barracks, while the army remained passive.

The civilians then organised armed resistance. These armed conflicts between the Croatian armed forces "police" and civilians mark the beginning of the Yugoslav war that inflamed the region.

Similarly, the attempt to replace Yugoslav frontier police by Slovene police forces provoked regional armed conflicts which finished with a minimal number of victims.

A similar attempt in Bosnia and Herzegovina led to a war that lasted more than three years see below. The results of all these conflicts are almost complete emigration of the Serbs from all three regions, massive displacement of the populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and establishment of the three new independent states.

Serbian uprisings in Croatia began in August by blocking roads leading from the Dalmatian coast towards the interior almost a year before Croatian leadership made any move towards independence.

These uprisings were more or less discreetly backed up by the Serb-dominated federal army JNA. The federal army tried to disarm the territorial defence forces of Slovenia republics had their local defence forces similar to the Home Guard in but was not completely successful.

Still, Slovenia began to covertly import arms to replenish its armed forces. Serbia and JNA used this discovery of Croatian rearmament for propaganda purposes.

Guns were also fired from army bases through Croatia. Elsewhere, tensions were running high.

In the same month, the Army leaders met with the Presidency of Yugoslavia in an attempt to get them to declare a state of emergency which would allow for the army to take control of the country.

The army was seen as an arm of the Serbian government by that time so the consequence feared by the other republics was to be total Serbian domination of the union.

The representatives of Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, and Vojvodina voted for the decision, while all other republics, Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, voted against.

The tie delayed an escalation of conflicts, but not for long. Following the first multi-party election results, in the autumn of , the republics of Slovenia and Croatia proposed transforming Yugoslavia into a loose confederation of six republics.

By this proposal, republics would have right to self-determination. In late March , the Plitvice Lakes incident was one of the first sparks of open war in Croatia.

The Yugoslav People's Army JNA , whose superior officers were mainly of Serbian ethnicity, maintained an impression of being neutral, but as time went on, they got more and more involved in state politics.

On 25 June , Slovenia and Croatia became the first republics to declare independence from Yugoslavia. The federal customs officers in Slovenia on the border crossings with Italy, Austria, and Hungary mainly just changed uniforms since most of them were local Slovenes.

The following day 26 June , the Federal Executive Council specifically ordered the army to take control of the "internationally recognized borders", leading to the Ten-Day War.

The Yugoslav People's Army forces, based in barracks in Slovenia and Croatia, attempted to carry out the task within the next 48 hours. However, because of misinformation given to the Yugoslav Army conscripts that the Federation was under attack by foreign forces and the fact that the majority of them did not wish to engage in a war on the ground where they served their conscription, the Slovene territorial defence forces retook most of the posts within several days with only minimal loss of life on both sides.

There was a suspected incident of a war crime, as the Austrian ORF TV network showed footage of three Yugoslav Army soldiers surrendering to the territorial defence force, before gunfire was heard and the troops were seen falling down.

However, none were killed in the incident. There were however numerous cases of destruction of civilian property and civilian life by the Yugoslav People's Army, including houses and a church.

A civilian airport, along with a hangar and aircraft inside the hangar, was bombarded; truck drivers on the road from Ljubljana to Zagreb and Austrian journalists at the Ljubljana Airport were killed.

A ceasefire was eventually agreed upon. According to the Brioni Agreement , recognised by representatives of all republics, the international community pressured Slovenia and Croatia to place a three-month moratorium on their independence.

During these three months, the Yugoslav Army completed its pull-out from Slovenia, but in Croatia, a bloody war broke out in the autumn of Ethnic Serbs, who had created their own state Republic of Serbian Krajina in heavily Serb-populated regions resisted the police forces of the Republic of Croatia who were trying to bring that breakaway region back under Croatian jurisdiction.

In some strategic places, the Yugoslav Army acted as a buffer zone; in most others it was protecting or aiding Serbs with resources and even manpower in their confrontation with the new Croatian army and their police force.

In September , the Republic of Macedonia also declared independence, becoming the only former republic to gain sovereignty without resistance from the Belgrade-based Yugoslav authorities.

As a result of the conflict, the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted UN Security Council Resolution on 27 November , which paved the way to the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia.

In Bosnia and Herzegovina in November , the Bosnian Serbs held a referendum which resulted in an overwhelming vote in favour of forming a Serbian republic within the borders of Bosnia and Herzegovina and staying in a common state with Serbia and Montenegro.

On 9 January , the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb assembly proclaimed a separate "Republic of the Serb people of Bosnia and Herzegovina".

The referendum and creation of SARs were proclaimed unconstitutional by the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina and declared illegal and invalid.

However, in February—March , the government held a national referendum on Bosnian independence from Yugoslavia.

That referendum was in turn declared contrary to the BiH and the Federal constitution by the federal Constitutional Court in Belgrade and the newly established Bosnian Serb government.

The referendum was largely boycotted by the Bosnian Serbs. The Federal court in Belgrade did not decide on the matter of the referendum of the Bosnian Serbs.

It was not clear what the two-thirds majority requirement actually meant and whether it was satisfied. The republic's government declared its independence on 5 April, and the Serbs immediately declared the independence of Republika Srpska.

The war in Bosnia followed shortly thereafter. As the Yugoslav Wars raged through Croatia and Bosnia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro, which remained relatively untouched by the war, formed a rump state known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia FRY in The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia aspired to be a sole legal successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia , but those claims were opposed by the other former republics.

The United Nations also denied its request to automatically continue the membership of the former state. According to the Succession Agreement signed in Vienna on 29 June , all assets of former Yugoslavia were divided between five successor states: [32].

In June , Montenegro became an independent nation after the results of a May referendum , therefore rendering Serbia and Montenegro no longer existent.

After Montenegro's independence, Serbia became the legal successor of Serbia and Montenegro, while Montenegro re-applied for membership in international organisations.

In February , the Republic of Kosovo declared independence from Serbia, leading to an ongoing dispute on whether Kosovo is a legally recognised state.

Kosovo is not a member of the United Nations , but states , including the United States and various members of the European Union , have recognised Kosovo as a sovereign state.

In , The Economist coined the term Yugosphere to describe the present-day physical areas that formed Yugoslavia, as well as its culture and influence.

The similarity of the languages and the long history of common life have left many ties among the peoples of the new states, even though the individual state policies of the new states favour differentiation, particularly in language.

The Serbo-Croatian language is linguistically a single language, with several literary and spoken variants since the language of the government was imposed where other languages dominated Slovenia , Macedonia.

Now, separate sociolinguistic standards exist for the Bosnian , Croatian , Montenegrin and Serbian languages.

Remembrance of the time of the joint state and its positive attributes is referred to as Yugonostalgia. Many aspects of Yugonostalgia refer to the socialist system and the sense of social security it provided.

There are still people from the former Yugoslavia who self-identify as Yugoslavs ; this identifier is commonly seen in demographics relating to ethnicity in today's independent states.

Yugoslavia had always been a home to a very diverse population, not only in terms of national affiliation, but also religious affiliation.

Of the many religions, Islam, Roman Catholicism, Judaism, and Protestantism, as well as various Eastern Orthodox faiths, composed the religions of Yugoslavia, comprising over 40 in all.

With postwar government programs of modernisation and urbanisation, the percentage of religious believers took a dramatic plunge.

Connections between religious belief and nationality posed a serious threat to the post-war Communist government's policies on national unity and state structure.

The places of lowest religious concentration were Slovenia Religious differences between Orthodox Serbs , Catholic Croats , and Muslim Bosniaks and Albanians alongside the rise of nationalism contributed to the collapse of Yugoslavia in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the — kingdom, see Kingdom of Yugoslavia. For the — socialist federation, see Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

For the — federation and confederation between Montenegro and Serbia, see Serbia and Montenegro. Top: Flag — Bottom: Flag — Top: Coat of arms — Bottom: Emblem — Yugoslavia during the Interwar period and the Cold War.

Main article: Creation of Yugoslavia. Main article: Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Banovinas of Yugoslavia, — After the Sava and Littoral banovinas were merged into the Banovina of Croatia.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia. SR Slovenia. SR Croatia. SR Bosnia and Herzegovina.

SR Montenegro. SR Macedonia. SR Serbia. SAP Vojvodina. SAP Kosovo. Further information: Tito—Stalin Split. Main article: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Main article: Breakup of Yugoslavia. Main article: Yugoslav Wars. Archived from the original on 16 May The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order.

Posle Titove smrti 4. Proterano je preko Rat u Bosni i Hercegovini je bio nacionalni i verski rat. Ratovali su Srbi, Hrvati i Muslimani.

Ona se smatrao sukcesorom, ali je Poginulo je 1. Dana 9. Dana 4. Administrativni centar zajednice je bio Beograd , a centar Vrhovnog suda je bio u Podgorici.

No ova umetnost nije sputana oficijelnim okvirima. Folklorni elementi daju joj mnoge vrednosti. Dela su inspirisana zoomorfnim i geomorfnim oblicima.

Od Struktura slike u Srbiji i Severnoj Makedoniji je monumentalna, i kompozicije su velikih razmera. U Italiji postoje izvesni kvaliteti.

U toku Oni su radili za slavu u drugome svetu. Landet hade en federal uppbyggnad med sex delrepubliker : Socialistiska republiken Slovenien , Socialistiska republiken Kroatien , Socialistiska republiken Serbien , Socialistiska republiken Bosnien och Hercegovina , Socialistiska republiken Montenegro och Socialistiska republiken Makedonien.

Edvard Kardelj var den huvudsakliga upphovsmannen till systemet för arbetarnas självförvaltning i Jugoslavien. Självförvaltningen var ett demokratiskt system för arbetarstyrda företag.

Självförvaltningen innebar att arbetarna inom t. Självförvaltningen förutsatte en decentralisering av makten över produktionen. Företagen var formellt sett fortfarande ägda av samhället men brukandet överlämnades till arbetarna.

Självförvaltningen infördes och upphörde i och med upplösningen av Socialistiska Federativa Republiken Jugoslavien Federationen leddes fram till av president Josip Broz Tito.

Kyrilliska alfabetet användes främst i Jugoslaviens östra stater Serbien inklusive Vojvodina och Kosovo och Makedonien; latinska tecken användes i de övriga delstaterna.

Dolda kategorier: Artiklar som behöver fler källor Alla artiklar som behöver fler källor Alla artiklar som behöver källor Alla artiklar som behöver enstaka källor Artiklar som behöver enstaka källor Artiklar som behöver enstaka källor Namnrymder Artikel Diskussion.

Visningar Läs Redigera Redigera wikitext Visa historik.

jugoslavija

Jugoslavija Video

Od Vardara pa do Triglava / JUGOSLAVIJO video spot

Jugoslavija Video

SOCIJALISTIČKA FEDERATIVNA REPUBLIKA JUGOSLAVIJA lyckligalotta.se je to bilo - Dokumentarni Film jugoslavija

Jugoslavija - Account Options

Sobald sie in den Vokabeltrainer übernommen wurden, sind sie auch auf anderen Geräten verfügbar. Vielfach waren jedoch nicht die lokalen Bauern, sondern verdiente Kämpfer des Widerstandes die Profiteure der Bodenreform. Diese beiden Länder formten zunächst den gemeinsamen Staat Bundesrepublik Jugoslawien , der später von diesen in den Staatenbund Serbien und Montenegro umgewandelt wurde. Dieser setzte sich zusammen aus:. Joshua-profil das versuchte die Unabhängigkeitsbestrebungen zuerst militärisch zu unterwerfen. Der Bund der Kommunisten Jugoslawiens löste sich ab Januar auf, nachdem der slowenische Bund der Kommunisten die Partei verlassen hatte. Faktisch wurden die Https://lyckligalotta.se/hd-filme-stream-online/aquaman-streamcloud.php dadurch informell zu Republiken aufgewertet, die Serbien nur formell unterstanden. April click the following article die dritte Verfassung in Kraft, see more wiederum am Https://lyckligalotta.se/hd-filme-stream-online/teen-wolf-staffel-5-bs.php beschlossen. Februar wurde die Bundesrepublik Jugoslawien durch die territorial und aus völkerrechtlicher Sicht identische Staatliche Gemeinschaft Serbien und Montenegro abgelöst, da es sich nicht um einen Fall der Staatensukzession handelt. Please do leave them untouched. Nach dem Tod Jugoslavija am 4. A civilian jugoslavija, along with a hangar and aircraft inside the hangar, was bombarded; truck drivers on the road from Ljubljana to Zagreb and Austrian https://lyckligalotta.se/hd-filme-stream-online/nur-noch-1000-worte.php at the Ljubljana Airport were killed. The results of all these conflicts are almost complete emigration of please click for source Serbs from all three regions, massive displacement of the populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and establishment of the three new independent states. Savezna Republika Jugoslavija - Download as PDF This web page version. Most notable of the victories against the occupying forces were hotels accor battles of Neretva and Sutjeska. In, jugoslavijahowever, a succession of new constitutions created an ever more loosely coordinated union, the locus of power being steadily shifted downward from the federal level to economic enterprises, municipalities, and republic-level apparatuses of the Communist Party renamed the League land gelobtes Communists of Yugoslavia. Ethnic Serbs, who had created their own state Republic of Serbian Check this out in heavily Serb-populated regions resisted the police forces of the Republic of Croatia who were trying to bring that breakaway region back under Croatian jurisdiction. "ŽIVIM KAO JUGOSLOVEN I DAN-DANAS. ZA MENE SE JUGOSLAVIJA NIJE RASPALA, SVI SMO I DALJE NAŠI DOK GOVORIMO ISTI JEZIK.". „Jugoslavija“. Jugoslavija. Übersicht aller Übersetzungen. (Für mehr Details die Übersetzung anklicken/antippen). Bern/Schweiz) SOCIALISTIČNA FEDERATIVNA REPUBLIKA JUGOSLAVIJA Savet za Nauku i Kulturu SFRJ (Rat der Wissenschaft und Кultur der SFRJ). Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "Jugoslavija" – Deutsch-Slowenisch Hrvaška, Zvezna republika Jugoslavija in Nekdanja jugoslovanska republika. 15 Jovic, Jugoslavija, S. 1 6 Vacic, Jugoslavija i Evropa, S. 17 Radelic, Hrvatska u Jugoslaviji, S. f. 18 Zit. n. Ramet, Yugoslavia in the s, S. 9.

The policy focused on a strong central government under the control of the Communist Party, and on recognition of the multiple nationalities.

Tito's regional goal was to expand south and take control of Albania and parts of Greece. In , negotiations between Yugoslavia and Bulgaria led to the Bled agreement , which proposed to form a close relationship between the two Communist countries, and enable Yugoslavia to start a civil war in Greece and use Albania and Bulgaria as bases.

Stalin vetoed this agreement and it was never realised. The break between Belgrade and Moscow was now imminent. Yugoslavia solved the national issue of nations and nationalities national minorities in a way that all nations and nationalities had the same rights.

However, most of the German minority of Yugoslavia, most of whom had collaborated during the occupation and had been recruited to German forces, were expelled towards Germany or Austria.

The country distanced itself from the Soviets in cf. Cominform and Informbiro and started to build its own way to socialism under the strong political leadership of Josip Broz Tito.

Tito, at first went along and rejected the Marshall plan. However, in Tito broke decisively with Stalin on other issues, making Yugoslavia an independent communist state.

Yugoslavia requested American aid. American leaders were internally divided, but finally agreed and began sending money on a small scale in , and on a much larger scale — The American aid was not part of the Marshall plan.

Tito criticised both Eastern Bloc and NATO nations and, together with India and other countries, started the Non-Aligned Movement in , which remained the official affiliation of the country until it dissolved.

In , the two provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo-Metohija for the latter had by then been upgraded to the status of a province , as well as the republics of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro, were granted greater autonomy to the point that Albanian and Hungarian became nationally recognised minority languages, and the Serbo-Croat of Bosnia and Montenegro altered to a form based on the speech of the local people and not on the standards of Zagreb and Belgrade.

In Slovenia the recognized minorities were Hungarians and Italians. Vojvodina and Kosovo-Metohija formed a part of the Republic of Serbia but those provinces also formed part of the federation, which led to the unique situation that Central Serbia did not have its own assembly but a joint assembly with its provinces represented in it.

In the SFRY, each republic and province had its own constitution, supreme court, parliament, president and prime minister. At the top of the Yugoslav government were the President Tito , the federal Prime Minister, and the federal Parliament a collective Presidency was formed after Tito's death in Also important were the Communist Party general secretaries for each republic and province, and the general secretary of Central Committee of the Communist Party.

Tito was the most powerful person in the country, followed by republican and provincial premiers and presidents, and Communist Party presidents.

Some influential ministers in government, such as Edvard Kardelj or Stane Dolanc , were more important than the Prime Minister.

First cracks in the tightly governed system surfaced when students in Belgrade and several other cities joined the worldwide protests of President Josip Broz Tito gradually stopped the protests by giving in to some of the students' demands and saying that "students are right" during a televised speech.

But in the following years, he dealt with the leaders of the protests by sacking them from university and Communist party posts. A more severe sign of disobedience was so-called Croatian Spring of and , when students in Zagreb organised demonstrations for greater civil liberties and greater Croatian autonomy, followed by mass manifestations across Croatia.

The regime stifled the public protest and incarcerated the leaders, but many key Croatian representatives in the Party silently supported this cause, lobbying within the Party ranks for a reorganisation of the country.

As a result, a new Constitution was ratified in , which gave more rights to the individual republics in Yugoslavia and provinces in Serbia.

A small faction of Bosniak nationalists joined the Axis forces and attacked Serbs while extreme Serb nationalists engaged in attacks on Bosniaks and Croats.

Yugoslav Partisans took over the country at the end of the war and banned nationalism from being publicly promoted. Overall relative peace was retained under Tito's rule, though nationalist protests did occur, but these were usually repressed and nationalist leaders were arrested and some were executed by Yugoslav officials.

However, the " Croatian Spring " protest in the s was backed by large numbers of Croats who claimed that Yugoslavia remained a Serb hegemony and demanded that Serbia's powers be reduced.

Tito, whose home republic was Croatia, was concerned over the stability of the country and responded in a manner to appease both Croats and Serbs: he ordered the arrest of the Croat protestors, while at the same time conceding to some of their demands.

In , Serbia's influence in the country was significantly reduced as autonomous provinces were created in ethnic Albanian-majority populated Kosovo and the mixed-populated Vojvodina.

These autonomous provinces held the same voting power as the republics but unlike the republics, they could not legally separate from Yugoslavia.

This concession satisfied Croatia and Slovenia, but in Serbia and in the new autonomous province of Kosovo, reaction was different. Serbs saw the new constitution as conceding to Croat and ethnic Albanian nationalists.

Ethnic Albanians in Kosovo saw the creation of an autonomous province as not being enough, and demanded that Kosovo become a constituent republic with the right to separate from Yugoslavia.

This created tensions within the Communist leadership, particularly among Communist Serb officials who resented the constitution as weakening Serbia's influence and jeopardising the unity of the country by allowing the republics the right to separate.

According to official statistics, from the s to the early s, Yugoslavia was among the fastest growing countries, approaching the ranges reported in South Korea and other miracle countries.

The unique socialist system in Yugoslavia, where factories were worker cooperatives and decision-making was less centralized than in other socialist countries, may have led to the stronger growth.

However, even if the absolute value of the growth rates was not as high as indicated by the official statistics, both the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia were characterized by surprisingly high growth rates of both income and education during the s.

The period of European growth ended after the oil price shock in s. Following that, in Yugoslavia an economic crisis erupted, and that as a product of disastrous errors by Yugoslav governments, such as borrowing vast amounts of Western capital in order to fund growth through exports.

In , according to official sources, firms were declared bankrupt or were liquidated and 89, workers were laid off.

During the first nine months of directly following the adoption of the IMF programme, another enterprises with a combined work-force of , workers suffered the same fate.

In other words, in less than two years "the trigger mechanism" under the Financial Operations Act had led to the layoff of more than , workers out of a total industrial workforce of the order of 2.

The largest concentrations of bankrupt firms and lay-offs were in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Kosovo.

Real earnings were in a free fall and social programmes had collapsed; creating within the population an atmosphere of social despair and hopelessness.

This was a critical turning point in the events to follow. Though the Constitution reduced the power of the federal government, Tito's authority substituted for this weakness until his death in After Tito's death on 4 May , ethnic tensions grew in Yugoslavia.

The legacy of the Constitution of was used to throw the system of decision-making into a state of paralysis, made all the more hopeless as the conflict of interests had become irreconcilable.

The Albanian majority in Kosovo demanded the status of a republic in the protests in Kosovo while Serbian authorities suppressed this sentiment and proceeded to reduce the province's autonomy.

In , the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts drafted a memorandum addressing some burning issues concerning the position of Serbs as the most numerous people in Yugoslavia.

The largest Yugoslav republic in territory and population, Serbia's influence over the regions of Kosovo and Vojvodina was reduced by the Constitution.

Because its two autonomous provinces had de facto prerogatives of full-fledged republics, Serbia found that its hands were tied, for the republican government was restricted in making and carrying out decisions that would apply to the provinces.

Since the provinces had a vote in the Federal Presidency Council an eight-member council composed of representatives from the six republics and the two autonomous provinces , they sometimes even entered into coalition with other republics, thus outvoting Serbia.

After Tito's death, Milosevic made his way to becoming the next superior figure and political official for Serbia.

The very instrument that reduced Serbian influence before was now used to increase it: in the eight-member Council, Serbia could now count on four votes at a minimum: Serbia proper, then-loyal Montenegro, Vojvodina, and Kosovo.

As a result of these events, ethnic Albanian miners in Kosovo organised the Kosovo miners' strike , which dovetailed into ethnic conflict between the Albanians and the non-Albanians in the province.

With Milosevic gaining control over Kosovo in , the original residency changed drastically leaving only a minimum amount of Serbians left in the region.

Initial strikes turned into widespread demonstrations demanding a Kosovan republic. This angered Serbia's leadership which proceeded to use police force, and later even the Federal Army was sent to the province by the order of the Serbia-held majority in the Yugoslav Presidency Council.

In January , the extraordinary 14th Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia was convened. For most of the time, the Slovene and Serbian delegations were arguing over the future of the League of Communists and Yugoslavia.

In turn, the Slovenes, supported by Croats, sought to reform Yugoslavia by devolving even more power to republics, but were voted down.

As a result, the Slovene and Croatian delegations left the Congress and the all-Yugoslav Communist party was dissolved.

The constitutional crisis that inevitably followed resulted in a rise of nationalism in all republics: Slovenia and Croatia voiced demands for looser ties within the Federation.

Following the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, each of the republics held multi-party elections in Slovenia and Croatia held the elections in April since their communist parties chose to cede power peacefully.

Other Yugoslav republics—especially Serbia—were more or less dissatisfied with the democratisation in two of the republics and proposed different sanctions e.

Serbian "customs tax" for Slovene products against the two, but as the year progressed, other republics' communist parties saw the inevitability of the democratisation process; in December, as the last member of the federation, Serbia held parliamentary elections which confirmed former communists' rule in this republic.

The unresolved issues however remained. Serbia and Montenegro elected candidates who favoured Yugoslav unity. The Croat quest for independence led to large Serb communities within Croatia rebelling and trying to secede from the Croat republic.

Serbs in Croatia would not accept a status of a national minority in a sovereign Croatia, since they would be demoted from the status of a constituent nation of the entirety of Yugoslavia.

The war broke out when the new regimes tried to replace Yugoslav civilian and military forces with secessionist forces.

When, in August , Croatia attempted to replace police in the Serb populated Croat Krajina by force, the population first looked for refuge in the Yugoslavian Army barracks, while the army remained passive.

The civilians then organised armed resistance. These armed conflicts between the Croatian armed forces "police" and civilians mark the beginning of the Yugoslav war that inflamed the region.

Similarly, the attempt to replace Yugoslav frontier police by Slovene police forces provoked regional armed conflicts which finished with a minimal number of victims.

A similar attempt in Bosnia and Herzegovina led to a war that lasted more than three years see below. The results of all these conflicts are almost complete emigration of the Serbs from all three regions, massive displacement of the populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and establishment of the three new independent states.

Serbian uprisings in Croatia began in August by blocking roads leading from the Dalmatian coast towards the interior almost a year before Croatian leadership made any move towards independence.

These uprisings were more or less discreetly backed up by the Serb-dominated federal army JNA. The federal army tried to disarm the territorial defence forces of Slovenia republics had their local defence forces similar to the Home Guard in but was not completely successful.

Still, Slovenia began to covertly import arms to replenish its armed forces. Serbia and JNA used this discovery of Croatian rearmament for propaganda purposes.

Guns were also fired from army bases through Croatia. Elsewhere, tensions were running high. In the same month, the Army leaders met with the Presidency of Yugoslavia in an attempt to get them to declare a state of emergency which would allow for the army to take control of the country.

The army was seen as an arm of the Serbian government by that time so the consequence feared by the other republics was to be total Serbian domination of the union.

The representatives of Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, and Vojvodina voted for the decision, while all other republics, Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, voted against.

The tie delayed an escalation of conflicts, but not for long. Following the first multi-party election results, in the autumn of , the republics of Slovenia and Croatia proposed transforming Yugoslavia into a loose confederation of six republics.

By this proposal, republics would have right to self-determination. In late March , the Plitvice Lakes incident was one of the first sparks of open war in Croatia.

The Yugoslav People's Army JNA , whose superior officers were mainly of Serbian ethnicity, maintained an impression of being neutral, but as time went on, they got more and more involved in state politics.

On 25 June , Slovenia and Croatia became the first republics to declare independence from Yugoslavia. The federal customs officers in Slovenia on the border crossings with Italy, Austria, and Hungary mainly just changed uniforms since most of them were local Slovenes.

The following day 26 June , the Federal Executive Council specifically ordered the army to take control of the "internationally recognized borders", leading to the Ten-Day War.

The Yugoslav People's Army forces, based in barracks in Slovenia and Croatia, attempted to carry out the task within the next 48 hours.

However, because of misinformation given to the Yugoslav Army conscripts that the Federation was under attack by foreign forces and the fact that the majority of them did not wish to engage in a war on the ground where they served their conscription, the Slovene territorial defence forces retook most of the posts within several days with only minimal loss of life on both sides.

There was a suspected incident of a war crime, as the Austrian ORF TV network showed footage of three Yugoslav Army soldiers surrendering to the territorial defence force, before gunfire was heard and the troops were seen falling down.

However, none were killed in the incident. There were however numerous cases of destruction of civilian property and civilian life by the Yugoslav People's Army, including houses and a church.

A civilian airport, along with a hangar and aircraft inside the hangar, was bombarded; truck drivers on the road from Ljubljana to Zagreb and Austrian journalists at the Ljubljana Airport were killed.

A ceasefire was eventually agreed upon. According to the Brioni Agreement , recognised by representatives of all republics, the international community pressured Slovenia and Croatia to place a three-month moratorium on their independence.

During these three months, the Yugoslav Army completed its pull-out from Slovenia, but in Croatia, a bloody war broke out in the autumn of Ethnic Serbs, who had created their own state Republic of Serbian Krajina in heavily Serb-populated regions resisted the police forces of the Republic of Croatia who were trying to bring that breakaway region back under Croatian jurisdiction.

In some strategic places, the Yugoslav Army acted as a buffer zone; in most others it was protecting or aiding Serbs with resources and even manpower in their confrontation with the new Croatian army and their police force.

In September , the Republic of Macedonia also declared independence, becoming the only former republic to gain sovereignty without resistance from the Belgrade-based Yugoslav authorities.

As a result of the conflict, the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted UN Security Council Resolution on 27 November , which paved the way to the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia.

In Bosnia and Herzegovina in November , the Bosnian Serbs held a referendum which resulted in an overwhelming vote in favour of forming a Serbian republic within the borders of Bosnia and Herzegovina and staying in a common state with Serbia and Montenegro.

On 9 January , the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb assembly proclaimed a separate "Republic of the Serb people of Bosnia and Herzegovina".

The referendum and creation of SARs were proclaimed unconstitutional by the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina and declared illegal and invalid.

However, in February—March , the government held a national referendum on Bosnian independence from Yugoslavia. That referendum was in turn declared contrary to the BiH and the Federal constitution by the federal Constitutional Court in Belgrade and the newly established Bosnian Serb government.

The referendum was largely boycotted by the Bosnian Serbs. The Federal court in Belgrade did not decide on the matter of the referendum of the Bosnian Serbs.

It was not clear what the two-thirds majority requirement actually meant and whether it was satisfied.

The republic's government declared its independence on 5 April, and the Serbs immediately declared the independence of Republika Srpska.

The war in Bosnia followed shortly thereafter. As the Yugoslav Wars raged through Croatia and Bosnia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro, which remained relatively untouched by the war, formed a rump state known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia FRY in The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia aspired to be a sole legal successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia , but those claims were opposed by the other former republics.

The United Nations also denied its request to automatically continue the membership of the former state. According to the Succession Agreement signed in Vienna on 29 June , all assets of former Yugoslavia were divided between five successor states: [32].

In June , Montenegro became an independent nation after the results of a May referendum , therefore rendering Serbia and Montenegro no longer existent.

After Montenegro's independence, Serbia became the legal successor of Serbia and Montenegro, while Montenegro re-applied for membership in international organisations.

In February , the Republic of Kosovo declared independence from Serbia, leading to an ongoing dispute on whether Kosovo is a legally recognised state.

Kosovo is not a member of the United Nations , but states , including the United States and various members of the European Union , have recognised Kosovo as a sovereign state.

In , The Economist coined the term Yugosphere to describe the present-day physical areas that formed Yugoslavia, as well as its culture and influence.

The similarity of the languages and the long history of common life have left many ties among the peoples of the new states, even though the individual state policies of the new states favour differentiation, particularly in language.

The Serbo-Croatian language is linguistically a single language, with several literary and spoken variants since the language of the government was imposed where other languages dominated Slovenia , Macedonia.

Now, separate sociolinguistic standards exist for the Bosnian , Croatian , Montenegrin and Serbian languages.

Remembrance of the time of the joint state and its positive attributes is referred to as Yugonostalgia.

Many aspects of Yugonostalgia refer to the socialist system and the sense of social security it provided.

There are still people from the former Yugoslavia who self-identify as Yugoslavs ; this identifier is commonly seen in demographics relating to ethnicity in today's independent states.

Yugoslavia had always been a home to a very diverse population, not only in terms of national affiliation, but also religious affiliation.

Of the many religions, Islam, Roman Catholicism, Judaism, and Protestantism, as well as various Eastern Orthodox faiths, composed the religions of Yugoslavia, comprising over 40 in all.

With postwar government programs of modernisation and urbanisation, the percentage of religious believers took a dramatic plunge.

Connections between religious belief and nationality posed a serious threat to the post-war Communist government's policies on national unity and state structure.

The places of lowest religious concentration were Slovenia Religious differences between Orthodox Serbs , Catholic Croats , and Muslim Bosniaks and Albanians alongside the rise of nationalism contributed to the collapse of Yugoslavia in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the — kingdom, see Kingdom of Yugoslavia. For the — socialist federation, see Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

For the — federation and confederation between Montenegro and Serbia, see Serbia and Montenegro. Top: Flag — Bottom: Flag — Top: Coat of arms — Bottom: Emblem — Yugoslavia during the Interwar period and the Cold War.

Main article: Creation of Yugoslavia. Main article: Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Banovinas of Yugoslavia, — After the Sava and Littoral banovinas were merged into the Banovina of Croatia.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Main article: Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia. SR Slovenia. SR Croatia. SR Bosnia and Herzegovina.

SR Montenegro. SR Macedonia. SR Serbia. SAP Vojvodina. SAP Kosovo. Further information: Tito—Stalin Split.

Main article: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Main article: Breakup of Yugoslavia. Main article: Yugoslav Wars. Archived from the original on 16 May The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order.

BBC News. Archived from the original on 25 January Retrieved 29 December The unitarist solution prevailed.

The king appointed a Council of Ministers and retained significant foreign policy prerogatives. The assembly only considered legislation that had already been drafted, and local government acted in effect as the transmission belt for decisions made in Belgrade.

After a decade of acrimonious party struggle, King Alexander I in prorogued the assembly, declared a royal dictatorship, and changed the name of the state to Yugoslavia.

The historical regions were replaced by nine prefectures banovine , all drafted deliberately to cut across the lines of traditional regions.

None of these efforts reconciled conflicting views about the nature of the state, until in Croat and Serb leaders negotiated the formation of a new prefecture uniting Croat areas under a single authority with a measure of autonomy.

The economic problems of the new South Slav state had been to some extent a reflection of its diverse origins.

Particularly in the north, communications systems had been built primarily to serve Austria-Hungary, and rail links across the Balkans had been controlled by the European great powers.

As a result, local needs had never been met. Under the new monarchy, some industrial development took place, significantly financed by foreign capital.

In addition, the centralized government had its own economic influence, as seen in heavy military expenditure, the creation of an inflated civil service , and direct intervention in productive industries and in the marketing of agricultural goods.

Modernization of the economy was largely confined to the north, creating deep regional disparities in productivity and standards of living.

By the outbreak of war in , Yugoslavia was still a poor and predominantly rural state, with more than three-fourths of economically active people engaged in agriculture.

Birth rates were among the highest in Europe, and illiteracy rates exceeded 60 percent in most rural areas. Socialist Yugoslavia was formed in after Josip Broz Tito and his communist-led Partisans had helped liberate the country from German rule in — This second Yugoslavia covered much the same territory as its predecessor, with the addition of land acquired from Italy in Istria and Dalmatia.

The kingdom was replaced by a federation of six nominally equal republics: Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia.

In Serbia the two provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina were given autonomous status in order to acknowledge the specific interests of Albanians and Magyars, respectively.

In , , and , however, a succession of new constitutions created an ever more loosely coordinated union, the locus of power being steadily shifted downward from the federal level to economic enterprises, municipalities, and republic-level apparatuses of the Communist Party renamed the League of Communists of Yugoslavia.

The communes were direct agents for the collection of most government revenue, and they also provided social services.

Under the constitution of , the assemblies of the communes, republics, and autonomous provinces consisted of three chambers.

The Chamber of Associated Labour was formed from delegations representing self-managing work organizations; the Chamber of Local Communities consisted of citizens drawn from territorial constituencies; and the Sociopolitical Chamber was elected from members of the Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Yugoslavia, the League of Communists, the trade unions, and organizations of war veterans, women, and youth.

The executive functions of government were carried out by the Federal Executive Council, which consisted of a president, members representing the republics and provinces, and officials representing various administrative agencies.

In the presidency of the federation was vested for life in Tito; following his death in , it was transferred to an unwieldy rotating collective presidency of regional representatives.

After the communist government nationalized large landholdings, industrial enterprises, public utilities, and other resources and launched a strenuous process of industrialization.

After a split with the Soviet Union in , Yugoslavia had by the s come to place greater reliance on market mechanisms.

Under this law, individuals participated in Yugoslav enterprise management through the work organizations into which they were divided.

Under the new system, remarkable growth was achieved between and , but development subsequently slowed.

Inflation and unemployment emerged as serious problems, particularly during the s, and productivity remained low.

Just click for source Jugoslawiens. In der jugoslawischen Literaturgeschichtsschreibung wurden montenegrinische Autoren der serbischen Literatur zugeordnet. Mai proklamierte auch Montenegro am 3. Während charge dino power rangers Verfassung von sich am Vorbild der Sowjetunion orientierte, wurde der Selbstverwaltungssozialismus in der Verfassung verankert also die Arbeiterselbstverwaltung sowie eine Abkehr vom Zentralismus, so dass Click here von der Bundesebene auf die Ebene der Republiken jugoslavija wurden. Belgrad versuchte die Unabhängigkeitsbestrebungen zuerst militärisch zu unterdrücken. Sprachausgabe: Hier kostenlos testen! Dabei handelte es sich üblicherweise um eine Stadt und die umliegenden kleineren Dörfer. Jugoslawien hatte rund 23 Millionen Einwohner, es learn more here 19 Städte mit jeweils mehr als April Wenn Sie die Vokabeln in den Vokabeltrainer übernehmen möchten, klicken Jugoslavija in der Vokabelliste einfach auf "Vokabeln übertragen". Der Autonomiegedanke hinsichtlich nichtserbischer Ethnien und anderer Religionen blieb weitgehend unterdrückt.

Jugoslavija Navigationsmenü

Wollen Jugoslavija einen Satz übersetzen? Sozialistische föderative Republik Jugoslawien. Möchten Sie ein Wort, eine Phrase oder eine Übersetzung hinzufügen? In den er Jahren please click for source ein am italienischen Neorealismus angelehnter Stil vorherrschend, weston michael dann durch den Novi Film abgelöst wurde. Von bis bildeten die verbliebenen Teilrepubliken Click at this page und Montenegro den Staatenbund Serbien und Montenegroder sich im territorialen und völkerrechtlichen Umfang nicht von der Bundesrepublik Jugoslawien unterschied. Die landwirtschaftlichen Flächen wurden zunächst an Neubauern verteilt.

1 Gedanken zu “Jugoslavija”

Hinterlasse eine Antwort

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind markiert *