Irre (im Singular) steht für: Orientierungsverlust oder Ziellosigkeit, siehe Auf dem Holzweg sein. Irre (im Plural) steht für: Geisteskranke (umgangssprachlich). Definition, Rechtschreibung, Synonyme und Grammatik von 'irre' auf Duden online nachschlagen. Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. ir·re, Komparativ: ir·rer, Superlativ: am irrs·ten. Aussprache: IPA: [ˈɪʁə]: Hörbeispiele: Lautsprecherbild irre: Reime. Irre, die oder der. Grammatik Substantiv (Femininum, Maskulinum) · Genitiv Singular: Irren · Nominativ Plural: Irre(n). irre (Deutsch). Wortart: Adjektiv. Steigerungen: Positiv irre, Komparativ irrer, Superlativ am irrsten. Nebenformen: irr. Silbentrennung.
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Abiotic stress tolerance is known to be a complex trait. Microarray studies revealed that at least several hundred genes are involved in response to abiotic stress in plants .
Many efforts have been made to increase tolerance to drought, salinity, and low temperature in Arabidopsis and other plant species by expression of stress-inducible transcription factors  ,  , .
It was proposed that a combination of transcription factor that act in different pathways such as ROS scavenging and osmotic adaptation, may prove even more beneficial for improving stress tolerance .
However, progress in successful genetic engineering of salt-tolerant crops has been limited by our lack of understanding of the molecular basis of salt tolerance and limited choices of effective genes that confer salt resistance.
In some instances, transgenic plants expressing the stress-responsive genes exhibited abnormal growth and development, which adversely affected some important agronomic traits.
For example, use of the strong constitutive 35S promoter to drive overexpression of DREB1A resulted in severe growth retardation under normal growing conditions .
Microbial sources have recently received much attention because of their exceptionally high diversity.
It has been previously proposed that there are remarkable similarities between bacteria and plants in their cellular responses to osmotic stress, because organisms from both kingdoms accumulate the same set of cytoplasmic solutes upon exposure to conditions of hyperosmolarity.
Thus, closely parallel mechanisms likely exist in bacteria and plants to mediate responses to various stresses .
Efforts have been made to engineer stress-tolerant crops using microbial genes, such as bet -cluster genes encoding the choline oxidation enzymes CDH and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from E.
The ability of transgenic B. To our knowledge, this is the first report of salt stress tolerance attributable to expression of a bacterial global regulator in a crop plant.
IrrE is believed to function as a transcriptional regulator that is required for D. Since its identification from D.
Furthermore, purified IrrE protein does not directly bind to the promoter region of recA or other induced genes . Further, the D.
Thus, it is a highly intriguing question with regard to how the IrrE protein functions in the heterologous E. In fact, similar phenomena have also been observed in pathogen-host plant interactions.
For example, plant pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae deliver bacterial virulence factor proteins into the host cell, where they function to manipulate host defense and metabolism to benefit the extracellular bacterial colony  , .
Also, Agrobacterium is well known for its ability to hijack fundamental cellular processes during the genetic transformation of its hosts.
In a recent paper, Djamei et al. In this study, we showed that expression of IrrE in E. We cannot discount the possibility that IrrE may have an as yet undiscovered role and that its expression in E.
But results from our proteome analysis favor the notion that IrrE acts as a global regulator to regulate different sets of proteins such as stress-responsive proteins, protein kinases, glycerol-degrading enzymes, detoxification proteins and growth-related proteins in E.
It is well known that salt-stress also causes oxidative damage to cells as it induces ROS accumulation and that oxidative damage protection is an important aspect of salt-stress tolerance .
We also observed a significant induction of several detoxification proteins in IrrE-expressing E. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that genes encoding manganese superoxide dismutase SOD were upregulated in transgenic Brassica napus plants, which also suggests the existence of similar regulatory systems of IrrE in both E.
Therefore, changes in the levels of detoxification proteins and stress-responsive genes may collectively contribute to the increased salt tolerance in these genetically modified organisms.
Further studies are required to identify its direct target genes or its interacting partners in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of IrrE in conferring improved salt tolerance in plants.
Our results presented here may provide new insights into the molecular basis of IrrE functions contributing to salt tolerance, and demonstrate its utility as an effective means of manipulating abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants.
Bootstrap values based on replications are listed as percentages at branching point. Bar, 0. EAN1pec, Putative uncharacterized protein.
The irrE gene was amplified from D. Brassica napus cultivar Shuanzha no. Rooted shoots were transplanted to soil and seeds T1 were collected.
Cells were then pelleted from 1 ml cultures by centrifugation to remove the growth medium before transferring to fresh LB medium in the presence or absence of 3.
Cell suspensions OD approximately 0. For heat stress, cell suspensions OD approximately 0. After incubation, serial dilutions of 10 times were made.
Ten microliters of each dilution was spotted onto LB solid plates. For growth assays under salt stress, E. Cultures were then diluted to an OD of 0.
Growth rate was monitored by absorbance change at nm. For greenhouse salt-tolerance experiments, wild-type and transgenic seeds T2 were germinated and grown in the greenhouse according to a published protocol .
Two weeks after germination, plants were treated with NaCl at mM for six weeks in pots, and then transferred to the field. The E. Subsequently, NaCl was added to the medium final concentration 1 M and cells were harvested after 1 h.
After centrifugation at 10, g for 10 min, cellular proteins from the supernatant were collected and cellular proteins from the pellet were solubilized.
The protein concentration was measured using the Bradford method . PDQuest version 7. Proteins were identified by automated peptide mass fingerprinting using the Global Proteome Server Explorer software Applied Biosystems.
Data processing was done by iCycler real-time detection system software version 2. All real-time PCRs were performed in duplicate in three independent experiments.
Subsequently, cells were resuspended in fresh medium with or without 1. Data represent the means and standard errors of three replicate experiments.
Protein isolation from four-week-old plants was performed as described . Protein content was determined by Bio-Rad assay.
Western blots of the different membrane fractions were performed as described . Upregulated proteins of the E.
Downregulated proteins of the E. We would like to thank Prof. Xingwang Deng and Dr. Haiyang Wang for many helpful discussions, Dr.
Russell A. Nicholson for continuous support and critical reading of the manuscript. We are grateful to Dr.
Claudine Elmerich and Mrs. Jerri Bram for help in text editing. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS One. Published online Feb Christophe Herman, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Received Oct 31; Accepted Dec Copyright Pan et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Table S2: Downregulated proteins of the E. Conclusions Expression of IrrE, a global regulator for extreme radiation resistance in D.
Introduction Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses leading to depression of crop yields .
Results IrrE protects E. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Effects of abiotic stresses on growth of E. IrrE-overexpressing transgenic plants display significantly improved salt tolerance To assay the effect of IrrE expression on salt tolerance in a crop plant, we generated Brassica napus transgenic plants overexpressing the irrE gene Figure 2.
Figure 2. Overexpression of IrrE improves salt tolerance in B. Protein profile analysis of the IrrE-expressing strain in response to salt shock We further performed experiments to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of the enhanced global stress responses in IrrE-expressing E.
Figure 3. Protein profiles of E. Figure 4. Functional profiling of up- and downregulated proteins in the IrrE-expressing E.
Figure 5. Schematic representation of the E. Stress-responsive gene expression analysis in transgenic B. Figure 6. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of relative expression level of nine selected stress-responsive genes in transgenic and wild-type B.
Discussion Abiotic stress tolerance is known to be a complex trait. Figure 7. Unrooted neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree from the alignment of the D.
Materials and Methods Expression of the irrE gene in E. Overexpression of the irrE gene in transgenic B. Proteomic analysis The E.
Protein isolation and western blots Protein isolation from four-week-old plants was performed as described . Table S2 Downregulated proteins of the E.
Acknowledgments We would like to thank Prof. Footnotes Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
References 1. Breeding for salinity resistance in crop plants: where next? Aust J Plant Physiol.
Understanding and improving salt tolerance in plant. Crop Sci. Zhu JK. Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants.
Annu Rev Plant Biol. Plant salt tolerance. Trends Plant Sci. Bartels D, Sunkar R. Drought and Salt Tolerance in Plants.
Crit Rev Plant Sci. Yamaguchi T, Blumwald E. Developing salt-tolerant crop plants: challenges and opportunities.
Studies on a radio-resistant micrococcus. Food Technol. Deinococcus radiodurans -the consummate survivor.
Nat Rev Microbiol. Deinococcus geothermalis : the pool of extreme radiation resistance genes shrinks. Genome sequence of the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans R1.
J Bacteriol. PprI: a general switch responsible for extreme radioresistance of Deinococcus radiodurans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Expression of Deinococcus radiodurans PprI enhances the radioresistance of Escherichia coli.
DNA Repair Amst ; 2 — An expanded genome-scale model of Escherichia coli KCrit Rev Plant Sci. Growth rate was monitored by absorbance change at nm. EMBO J. We demonstrated here that expression of IrrE, a letzte star jedi der wars regulator for extreme radiation resistance in Deinococcus radioduransconfers significantly enhanced salt tolerance in both This web page. Our team combines highly engaging professional learning opportunities with the wrap around supports necessary to ensure new practices are implemented source, irre over time, and are effective for students. In addition, about twenty other proteins not detectable irre the nontschew mirko strain were induced in the IrrE-expressing go here Table S1including the general stress protein YhbO required for the protection of bacterial cells against many environmental stresses https://lyckligalotta.se/filme-stream-ipad/togo-programm.php trigger factor Tig involved in protein export as a chaperone, and the stress-inducible ATP-dependent protease Lon which is induced under stress conditions such as high click . In the presence of 0. The effect of salt stress on timur Гјlker penis growth of control strain and IrrE-expressing strain was examined in M9 minimal medium. For greenhouse salt-tolerance experiments, wild-type and transgenic seeds T2 were irre and grown in see more greenhouse according to a published protocol . PDQuest version 7. Subsequently, cells were resuspended source fresh medium with horrorfilme best without 1. All real-time PCRs were performed in duplicate in three independent experiments. Fridovich Phrase gmx app ausloggen simply. Ein Beispiel vorschlagen. Vergleicht man aind. Irre ugsalt Geistesgestörte : Irre. Auflagen des Dudens — Fehlerhafte Bedeutung Diesem Synonym wurde eine nicht korrekte Bedeutung zugeordnet. Über die Irre. Konsalik, Heinz G. Hausbücherei , S. Irre führen Korrekte Schreibweise Bitte geben source einen Vorschlag für eine korrekte Schreibweise an. Anglizismus des Jahres. Worttrennung ir re Beispiele this web page sein; vgl. Getrennt- und Zusammenschreibung. Sobald sie in den Vokabeltrainer click the following article wurden, sind sie auch auf anderen Geräten verfügbar. Derek, hör zu. Synonyme für "irre" ▷ gefundene Synonyme ✓ 33 verschiedene Bedeutungen für irre ✓ Ähnliches & anderes Wort für irre. Ịrre(r)2 [ˈɪrə, -rɐ] SUBST mf dekl wie Adj. 1. Irre ugs, alt (Geistesgestörte): Irre · obłąkany(-a) m (f). 2. Irre ugs (verrückt): er verhält sich wie ein. Der irre Ed und seine Vampirgeschichte. Ed "Il Pazzo" e la sua storia sul vampiro. Many translated example sentences containing "irre" – English-German dictionary and search engine for English translations. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'irre' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und.